Darjeeling is located in the state of West Bengal, at an elevation of 6,700 ft (2,000 m). It lies on the Darjeeling-Jalapahar range of the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region. The range is shaped like the alphabet ‘Y’. The hills are enclosed by the higher peaks and snow-clad ranges of the Himalayas, such as Kanchenjunga and Mount Everest which are visible from the town. The soil is mainly composed of conglomerate formations and sandstone. It is poorly consolidated and considered unsuitable for agriculture. Steep slopes and loose topsoil of the area lead to frequent landslides during the monsoon season. The town comes under seismic zone IV and is prone to frequent earthquakes. The town is lined with dense evergreen forests of oak and sal. It is home to various types of fauna including ducks, gulls, mongooses and badgers.
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The Indian Railways offers five hill trains: Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, Nilgiri Mountain Railway, Kalka-Shimla Railway, Kangra Valley Railway, and Matheran Railway.
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