Gwalior Fort was founded by Maharaj Suraj Sen. Many dynasties ruled the city and its surrounding areas. It was ruled by the Naad dynasty of Pataliputra during the 6th century BC and by Naga dynasty during the first century AD. According to a carving found in Pawaya, the Kushanas reigned over the city till the 3rd century AD. Their rule was followed by the Guptas till 467 AD. The Kannauj of Gurar-Pratihara dynasty, who governed Gwalior during the 5th century, played an important role in shaping the history of the city. It became the capital of Kannauj from 700–740 AD and was called Gopal Giri. Later, Gwalior was under the rule of the Kachwahas. From 1195–96, Muhammad Ghori tried to invade Gwalior but he failed due to the efforts of the Parihars. It was captured by Iltutmish in 1231, who ruled it till the 13th century. In 1375, Raja Veer Singh of the Tomar dynasty became the ruler of Gwalior. For a brief period, it was ruled by the Mughals, followed by the Marathas. In the 1730s, the Scindias conquered Gwalior and it remained as a princely state under the British. Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi fought against the British when the city was attacked. After independence, Maharaja Jivajirao Scindia acceded the city to the Indian union.
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