The history of Kanpur dates back to the 13th century, when the present-day Kanpur was a village named Kanhpur, established by Raja Kanh Deo of the Kanhpuria clan. The area was ruled by several rulers of Kannauj, such as Harsha Vardhan, Jai Chand and Mihir Bhoja. It was also ruled by Muslim rulers of the Sur dynasty. In May 1765, Shuja-ud-daula, the Nawab of Awadh, was defeated by the British near Jajmau. From 1773 to 1801, Kanpur was part of the Oudh kingdom, followed by the treaty of 1801 between Nawab Saadat Ali Khan of Awadh and the British, who realized the strategic importance of Kanpur. \n\nSeveral Europen businessmen established themselves in Kanpur, during this time. The city took part in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, under Nana Sahib. Certain events led to the Bibighar massacre, when the sepoy forces killed 120 women and children. Following these events, the Kanpur Massacre and similar other massacres was carried out by the British, as justification. It led to the loss of the lives of several sepoys, as well as civilian men, women and children. Under the British, the present-day Uttar Pradesh was called as United Provinces. After the independence of India, it was renamed as Uttar Pradesh in the year 1950.
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