Traces have been found proving there were settlements dating as far back as the Old Stone Age. People lived on either side of the Danube, which is now where Budapest stands. It was then occupied by Romans, Ottomans and Turks all leaving behind relics, houses, baths and roadways. The 19th century saw the Hungarian struggle for independence and modernisation. After the end of World War II, Budapest was greatly destroyed by the air raids. For another year, it suffered again during the Battle of Budapest.
From the 1960s to the 1980s, the city went under major repair and reconstruction. The metro lines were opened during this time and the Buda Castle found a place in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The population grew and the twentieth century saw many political changes. Budapest is now home to nearly two million people that include world leaders in science, film and innovation.