Milan dates back to around 400 BC when the Celtic Insubres settled in Milan and the surrounding region. In 222 BC, the Romans conquered the settlement. In 402, the city was besieged by the Visigoths and in 452, the Huns overran it. In 539, the Ostrogoths conquered Milan and in 569, a Teutonic tribe, the Lombards conquered the city of Milan. Milan surrendered to the Franks in 774 and afterwards, Milan became part of the Holy Roman Empire. Much of the medieval history of Milan revolves around the power struggle between two political groups, the Guelphs and the Ghibellines. Milan was ruled by the French and then passed on to the Spanish Habsburg. In 1706, the French were defeated by the Austrian Habsburgs. Napoleon invaded Italy in 1796 and when his occupation ended, Milan went back to Austrian control in 1815. In 1848 Milan was incorporated into the Kingdom of Sardinia. The unification of Italy cemented Milan's commercial dominance over northern Italy. Rapid industrialization and market expansion made Milan the centre of Italy's leading industrial region and principal financial centre. During the Second World War, Milan suffered severe damage from Allied bombings. During the post-war economic boom, Milan was reconstructed, with the building of several modernist skyscrapers, such as the Torre Velasca and the Pirelli Tower. In the 1980s, with the international success of Milanese houses like Versace, Armani and Dolce & Gabbana, Milan became one of the world's fashion capitals. In the early 21st century, a series of sweeping redevelopments were undertaken in Milan.
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