The earliest Neolithic settlements found in this area date back to the Majiabang culture (5000–3300 BCE) which was overtaken by the Songze culture and by the 4th and 5th centuries BCE, during the Jin dynasty (317–420), a thriving fishing industry had developed. The Shanghai area then came into the hands of the Wu, which later was dominated by the Kingdom of Yue, in turn, occupied by the Chu Kingdom. During the Song dynasty (960–1279) Shanghai developed into a market town and became a city in 1291 during the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368). Shanghai developed during the Qing dynasty (1644–1912) into a primary trading port. By the 17th century, the Ming dynasty had dwindled but Shanghai had become a key cotton and textile hub, by then. The Opium Wars of the 19th century saw the British East India Company take the upper hand with the Chinese being made to forcibly buy British opium and subsequently, dealers from Germany, France, USA and other foreign supremacies moved in and each carved out autonomous 'concessions'. During the ensuing years, a flood of immigrants came from many countries and they played a key role in transforming Shanghai into a metropolis. The 1911 Xinhai Revolution led to the establishment of the Republic of China which saw Shanghai become the epicentre of many activities that would in due course shape modern China. Shanghai came under Japanese domination from 1937 to 1945 while World War II brought many Jews to the shores of Shanghai. In 1949, Shanghai came under Communist control and under the Maoist era, a bleak time of regression set in, and it was not until 1989 that the modern transformation began with foreign and domestic investment. Since then, Shanghai has pioneered China's general development and seen uninterrupted economic growth into becoming one of China’s leading cosmopolitan cities.
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